Type 2 diabetes: Rheumatoid arthritis drug improves diabetes

Molecules involved in inflammation, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been implicated in type 2 diabetes. The involvement has led researchers at the universities of L’Aquila and Catanzaro in Italy to question whether the drugs Existing drugs that lower interleukin-1 could be useful for treating type 2 diabetes. Their study, published in February 2019 in the journal Medicine (Baltimore) looked at people who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and were being treated with anakinra (Kinaret), a drug used to treat various inflammatory diseases.

Type 2 diabetics treated with anakinra for their active rheumatoid arthritis were followed for six months and compared with others taking different anti-arthritis drugs. At three and six months, people taking anakinra showed less insulin resistance and lower glucagon levels than people taking other drugs. Insulin resistance causes type 2 diabetes. Glucagon raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to make sugar.

For adults, the standard dose of anakinra is 100 mg daily, injected under the skin of the abdomen or thigh. Reduces the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in four to six weeks and the symptoms of other inflammatory diseases much faster…

  • Redness, itching, a rash, pain, bruising, or bleeding may occur at the injection site, but the effects usually wear off after one to two weeks.

  • Headaches and low white blood cell counts have been reported, but are rare.

Victims must be monitored with blood counts and watched for infections. The most serious side effects include…

  • cough,

  • wheezing,

  • brisket bread,

  • rash,

  • winters,

  • labored breathing,

  • a swollen face, lips, tongue or throat.

Anakinra is also used to treat various other inflammatory diseases…

  • idiopathic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis,

  • taste,

  • calcium pyrophosphate deposition (pseudogout),

  • behcet’s disease,

  • ankylosing spondyloarthritis,

  • uveitis,

  • Still’s disease and

  • neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease.

Interleukin-1 isn’t all bad. It is involved in immunity. It is part of the family of molecules known as cytokines, which are involved in inflammation and immune regulation.

The two types of interleukin-1 are called…

  • alpha and

  • beta.

They are created in macrophages, a type of white blood cell, and various other cells. Interleukin-1 raises body temperature to kill microscopic invaders and stimulates the production of interferon, an immune molecule, as well as various types of cells that help build the immune system. It is given to fight melanoma, a variety of skin cancers, and kidney cancer.

We may have to learn to control the optimal number of cytokines we need and turn them on and off at will.

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